Английское словообразование: префиксы и суффиксы (особенно подробно про -let, -ling)

Английское словообразование: префиксы и суффиксы (особенно подробно про -let, -ling)

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Я уже не раз писала о том, что неплохо бы ознакомиться с тем, как образуются слова в изучаемом вами языке. В этом посте я бы хотела поделиться с вами списками почти всех префиксов и суффиксов, составленными Виктором, а также рассказать более подробно о суффиксах -ling, -let, которые в большом количестве “водятся” в после про названия детенышей животных.

Итак, префиксы английского языка (пост про “отрицательные” приставки)

 

WordPart

Main meaning

 Comments

Exmple 1

Example 2

a- toward ahead aside
a- not atypical asexual
ab- away from abuse abnormal
ac- close to, connect before C account accompany
ad- close to, connect adapt advise
af- close to, connect before F affect affirm
ag- close to, connect before G aggregate aggrieve
al- close to, connect before L allocate allege
ambi- on both sides ambidexterous ambivalence
anti- against anti-social anti-government
ap- close to, connect before P approach appropriate
arch- more than/main arch-enemy archetypal
as- close to, connect before S assignment assumption
at- close to, connect before T attract attitude
auto- self autofocus autobiography
be- make to be belittle befriend
bene- well benevolent benefit
bi- two biplane bilingual
cata- down, against catalogue catacomb
circum- around circumspect circumlocution
co- together co-worker coordinatate
col- together collect collaboration
com- together commixture commit
con- together convolute congenial
cor- together correspond corroboration
counter- agaist/opposite counteract counter-productive
contra- against contradict contravene
de- down/opposite decompose decode
demi- half demigod demi-official
dis- not/appart disappear disperse
down- downward downpour downturn
em- make to be empower embody
en- make to be endanger enlarge
ex- earlier ex-wife ex-member
extra beyond extraordinary extraterrestrial
fore- in advance forewarn foresee
hyper- too much hypertension hyperactive
il- not illegal illogical
im- not impossible impersonal
in- not informal independent
in- upon integument influence
inter- between international interface
ir- not irregular irrelevant
mal- bad malfunction malnutrition
micro- small microcomputer microfilm
mid- halfway midnight midsummer
mis- wrongly misjudge misunderstand
mono- one monotone monoculture
multi- many multinational multicultural
neo- new neo-classical neo-Gothic
non- not non-smoker non-stop
omni- all omnipotent omnivorous
poly many polygamy polytheism
post- after postwar postmodern
pre- before preheat pre-school
pro- supporting/for pro-Britain pro-family
pseudo- false pseudo-classic pseudonym
re- again replay remake
semi- half semi-final semi-circle
sub- under subclass subsystem
super- beyond supernatural superhuman
sur- over surpass surreal
trans- change/cross transform transplant
tri- three trinity triangle
un- not unhappy unlucky
ultra- beyond ultraviolet ultramoderm
uni- one unisex unicycle
under- low/lower underestimate underneath

Суффиксы английского языка

WordPart

Meanin

 Parts of speach

Exmple 1

Example 2

-able can be Adjective readable touchable
-age Noun shortage coverage
-al Noun renewal arrival
-al Adjective personal relational
-an person/place European American
-ance Noun clearance allowance
-ancy Noun expectancy consultancy
-ant Adjective resultant expectant
-ant person/thing Noun consultant servant
-ar Adjective circular angular
-ary quality Adjective imaginary momentary
-ary person/thing Noun secretary commentary
-ate Adjective passionate fortunate
-ate Verb activate formulate
-atic Adjective problematic systematic
-ation Noun consideration limitation
-atory Adjective preparatory exploratory
-cy Noun bankruptcy accuracy
-dom a state of Noun freedom boredom
-ee person Noun trainee employee
-eer person Noun mountaineer engineer
-en made of Adjective wooden golden
-en Verb harden deepen
-ence Noun difference existence
-ency Noun tendency dependency
-ent person/thing Noun president respondent
-ent of quality to do Adjective different consistent
-er person/thing Noun sender teacher
-ery Noun cookery robbery
-ese relating to Person Japanese Vietnamese
-esque Adjective picturesque statuesque
-ess female Noun actress princess
-et small Noun packet owlet
-ette small Noun kitchenette cigarette
-fold times Adjective twofold threefold
-ful of a quality Adjective careful useful
-ful amount Adjective armful spoonful
-hood a state of Noun childhood motherhood
-i relating to Person Israeli Iraqi
-ian relating to Person musician Egyptian
-ible can be Adjective accessible convertible
-ic Adjective periodic heroic
-ify Verb classify simplify
-ion Noun discussion action
-ise Verb standardise finalise
-ish Adjective childish foolish
-ism theory of Noun realism nationalism
-ist person Noun specialist artist
-ite relating to Person Israelite socialite
-ition Noun addition opposition
-ity Noun publicity reality
-ive Adjective active creative
-ize to bring to a state of Adjective standardize finalize
-less without Noun endless careless
-let small Noun booklet droplet
-ling connected with Noun weakling underling
-ly Adjective lively friendly
-ly Adverb widely kindly
-ment Noun agreement movement
-most the furthest Adjective topmost uppermost
-ness Noun kindness sickness
-or person/thing Noun collector governor
-ory of quality to do Adjective sensory contradictory
-ous Adjective dangerous continuous
-ry Noun memo aviary
-ship a state of Noun leadership friendship
-sive of quality to do Adjective persuasive pervasive
-some Adjective troublesome fearsome
-ster person Noun youngster gangster
-th Noun warmth growth
-th number Numeral fourth sixth
-ty Noun safety uncertainty
-ure Noun pressure failure
-ward direction Adverb northward backward
-ways direction Adverb sideways lengthways
-wise direction Adverb anticlockwise otherwise
-y connected with Adjective windy speedy
-y of quality to be Noun difficulty honesty

Всегда внимательный plush в связи с постом про названия детенышей животных обратил мое внимание на суффиксы -ling и -let, о существовании которых я до тех пор и не подозревала.

Итак, суффикс -ling образует существительные, обозначающие человека, животное или растение, для которых характерно то действие, состояние или положение, на которое указывает основа (лучше, чем Lingvo мне не сказать)
to fledge – выкармливать птенцов, до тех пор пока они сами не смогут летать; fledg(e)ling – птенец

to yean – ягниться; yeanling – ягненок

to be fond of smb – души в ком-то не чаять; fondling – любимчик

ground – земля; groundling – некто или нечто обитающее на земле (ползучее растение или животное, живущее на земной поверхности)

Также этот суффикс может использоваться для образования существительных со значением уменьшительности или даже уничижительности

frogling (frog) – лягушонок (лягушка)

gosling (goose) – гусенок (гусь)

duckling – маленькая утка

darling – букв. маленький дорогой человек  (little dear)

Суффикс -let также указывает на небольшие размеры

piglet – поросенок

eaglet – орленок